The impact of covid-19 on Kenya’s media consumption.

The republic of Kenya recorded its first confirmed case of Covid-19 in March 13th 2020. This was after much speculation and concern by the media and people as a correspondent on SABC news stated that

“the chances of Kenya having the virus is very high as 2 patients who flew in from china are in quarantine , very ill but not confirmed cases of coronavirus”- said Sarah Kimani.

In advent of this, the Kenyan government has admonished employers in the private and government sector to work from home as it would be a measure needed to reduce the spread of the pandemic and reduce new infections.

Kenyan leader addressing the people Source:Voanews

 According to SABCS with Nairobi Kenya ranking the 6th in Africa with a high risk of getting infected with the coronavirus. This is because its borders were opened for quite some time which allowed people from 18 infected countries enter the country including China, Kenya could be at a high risk of getting infected with the coronavirus.

The republic of Kenya is located in the western part of Africa with a population of over Thirty million people colonized by the British and came under the colonial control in 1884, Hachen (1971).

According to press reference (2007) Kenya has about 78.1% literacy rate with a circulation of 250,000 with a ratio of 13 per 1,000. It has 10 daily newspapers with a ratio of 6 per 1,000.

10 Tv stations with over 3.5 million homes have TV, 40% make use of Tv Ng’ang’a (2015).

38 radio stations  and a whooping 3,070,000 radio receivers, 99.8 radio receivers, 99.8 radio receivers per 1,000 and an average of 200,000 number of individuals with internet access at 6.5 per 1,000

The  republic of Kenya’s media history is knotted with the political and economic interests of the colonial government and the white settler communities , the Kenyan media was seen as a threat to the colonial government.

Kenyan media practioners covering news in the pandemic Source:citizentv.co.ke

As described by Ng’anga (2015) the Kenyan media is a product of the country’s legacy and is influenced by it’s political , economic, social, cultural and technological forces locally and internationally since radio transmission began in 1927 and Television broadcasting in 1962.

However,  the Kenyan media is regulated by a body known as the media council of Kenya. This body sets standards and regulates, monitors media activities and compliance.

The media council of Kenya states that the media must be independent of control by government political interests or commercial interests. The media must reflect the interest of the society, standards are set, regulated and monitored.

These guidelines applies to : (a) Media enterprises (b) Journalist (c) Media PR actioners  (d) foreign journalists accredited by the media council of Kenya (e) consumers of media services ( the public falls under this group).

The kenyan media has a strong presence and power as it was a catalyst for change and enabled the country gain its independence in December 12th ,1963. It’s of essence to know the impact of the novel coronavirus on Kenya’s media.

GeoPoll who is the leading provider when it comes to vital information and statistics/ research in emerging markets throughout Africa, Asia and Latin has been actively involved in gathering  and processing accurate data of the effect of coronavirus on professionals on a global scale which has measured the Kenya media audience in this pandemic.

Vivid comparisons were made by GeoPoll between the media consumption of Kenyan’s before and after government restrictions to curtail of the spread of coronavirus.

There were suspected cases but no confirmed case till march 13th. Kenya currently has 737 confirmed cases , 1 critical case, 281 recovery with 11.11% decrease in active cases and a total of 416 active cases as we speak according to ncov2019.

From March 1st -29th  2020 ,the media consumption in Kenya was analyzed which involved ages from 15 and above including male/female usage as data was analysed from 6am to 12 am.

Records showed that, TV viewership increased with 335,000. Television recorded to have more viewers. Tv had an increase from 6.76 million to 7.09 million after Covid-19 restrictions were made by the government of Kenya.

Statistics of Kenya’s media usage Photo credit GeoPoll

TV stations such as citizen TV, KTN news , Al Jazeera had the largest increase in viewership compared to the first 2 weeks of march 2020.

Citizen TV viewership rose to 159,000 viewers KTN news viewership rose 110,000 viewers and Aljazeera’s viewership rose to 59,000 as viewership increased on these Television stations.

However, Viewership reduced in other Kenyan stations such as KTN with a decline of 34,000 viewers. Maisha magic west east declined with 34,000 views  and switch Tv declined with 3,000 viewers.

The Tv outlets did not only experience change in media reportage as reported by GeoPoll. Radio listenership fell from the 1st of march till the 29th of March as studies were carried from 6am- 12am . In the first two weeks of march, the available radio audience was 10.79 million listeners. Radio listenership dropped down to 66,000 to 10.72 million from 16th– 29th of march.

Statistics showing Radio decline since covid-19. Photo Credit: GeoPoll

Despite the decline in radio listenership, radio still has more audience than TV the based on the effect of Covid-19 on audience behaviour.

The only radio station with significant growth was radio citizen with 115,000 growth in the month of march compared to others who were at a loss such as Radio Maisha (-53,000) , Milele FM (-35,000 ), Jambo (-19,000 ), Hot 96 (-10,000).

Despite the trends, its important to note that each radio station has it’s variation, Radio citizen stands out as it has recorded growth across most time blocks.

GeoPoll stated that the shift in radio listenership is because of certain factors like consumers are staying at home 24/7 which makes them start their day later than usual because they have no appointments, no job or any event to be up early for which has contributed somewhat to the decline in radio listenership.

As radio stations in Kenya broadcast from 6am to 8am, they  broadcast news updates at the top of each hour compared to social /TV where news is relayed on a real time basis “breaking news” which leaves radio news updates behind.

The declination of radio consumption is also as a result of  people are not on the go as they usually were when there were no movement restrictions. With this, radio finds itself competing with various media channels.

Another reason for media declination in Kenya according to GeoPoll is that consumers spend more time at home and this causes split in attention, and has also caused short attention span as audiences also engage with other media platforms such as social media, SVOD, VOD, gaming, DSTV, etc.

As stated by James (2020) 68% percent of consumers are seeking out pandemic updates online over any other activity as they are all hoping the pandemic goes down , restriction ease down, they can all come about and resume their normal lives, the younger generation seem to be listening to music than searching for the news.

Infographics of Internet activities. Source: Global web index, Coronavirus.

Another reason for declination in media is some people are trying to distract themselves from the media news updates to protect their mental well-being as more news updates about the pandemic causes anxiety and paranoia. Hence, the increase in the use of Facebook,instagram and Netflix than radio and TV which have reoccurring news updates on Covid-19.

References:

1.GeoPoll (2020) “Coronavirus impact on media consumption in Kenya.” Available at https://www.geopoll.com/blog/coronavirus-media-kenya/

(Accessed 7th May 2020)

2. Geopoll (2020) “Report: Coronavirus in Sub-Saharan Africa” Available at  https://www.geopoll.com/blog/coronavirus-africa/

(Accessed 7th May 2020)

3.Hachen,W. (1971) ”Muffled drums: The news media in Africa” Iowa State University Press.

4. nCov2019 (2019) “World Covid-19 statistics” Available at https://ncov2019.live/

(Accessed 7th May 2020).

5.Nielsen(2020)  “Radio is “comfort food” as media consumption rises amid covid-19 pandemic” Available at https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/article/2020/radio-is-comfort-food-as-media-consumption-rises-amid-covid-19-pandemic/

(Accessed 7th May 2020).

6. Ng’ang’a, N (2015). “ The media scene in Kenya” Available at https://www.musicinafrica.net/magazine/media-scene-kenya (Accessed: 19th April 2020).

7.Press Conference(2007) “Kenya” Available at http://www.pressreference.com/Gu-Ku/Kenya.html (Accessed: 19th April,2020).

8. AMWIK (2014) ”Law governing media practice in Kenya: a journalist’s handbook” Available at http://amwik.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/Laws-Governing-Media-in-Kenya.pdf  (Accessed: 17th April 2020).

CRITICAL REFLECTION ON MY FIRST FEATURE ARTICLE

Critical Reflection

This feature article is titled “Are men afraid of rejection?”

The feature article  is targeted at both male and female genders from age eighteen to their  sixties. They are targeted to youths in the society who are interested and are seeking relationships/married. It’s written to reveal to people most especially women that despite how tough and strong men seem , they have fears and have weaknesses and are very much human, they feel things too and sometimes a little too much. It  was revealed by relationship/ marriage counsellor  Adim Ogudu that about 82% of men in our society are afraid of being rejected when revealing  their intentions to their love interest.  It’s like a coin, faced with head and tail, they either get approval or denial and they dread this. This feature article is for publication in www.RTE.ie under lifestyle.

In this feature article I interviewed two relationship experts from Nigeria via skype. I initially reached out to them via their emails  Oguduadim@yahoo.com  and Faridaubandoma@gmail.com

I made use of materials provided for us on moodle.griffith.ie for writing features.

Writing this feature wasn’t so easy for me, I reached out to about three relationship experts here in Ireland from Instagram they never replied my emails and the one person who replied my mail refused my interview I had to make use of relationship experts back in my country. In my next feature what would be done differently would be to get at least one relationship expert in Ireland and to interview men ranging the age of sixty to sixty-five just to get their opinions, I believe they would be chatty and divulge interesting facts young men would not.

SOCIAL MEDIA BECOMING A GANGSTER COMMUNITY?

“We need new independent regulation bodies to sanction forces using technology to subvert our democracy”- Tom Watson

BY Chinemere Ikpe

  Face book breached data protection and confidentiality guidelines by using millions of  users accounts to make software’s and influence their choices at ballot box with the help of Russia.

According to 18 months inquiry  which was launched in 2017 by the digital, culture, media and sport committee, the platform consciously broke confidentiality and competition law according to legislative report, tagging the company as “digital gangsters” 

 In March 2018, the New York times, the observer, and channel 4 declared that the Cambridge Analytica had secretly acquired data gotten from millions of Facebook users.

 It was also revealed by Christopher Wylie, who worked in the academic university to obtain data told the observer how Facebook used million people’s profiles, manipulated them and used the information they got to build a system which were used to sway voters.

 This action puts the democracy of the people at great risk. Citizens are continuously misinformed with shady commercials from unknown sources and are delivered through the key social media platforms made use of daily.

Damian Collins further argued that big technological companies are failing in their responsibilities when it comes to the care of user’s personal data and they owe this to their users, data privacy should be taken seriously.

Facebook is one giant tech company which has a massive market power which enables them to make more money by suppressing smaller tech company who solely depend on Facebook to reach their respective customers.

Major tech companies are very aware of this, but repetitively fail to address.

Collins said that “there is a radical shift in the balance of power between the platform and the people” he also added that “ The age of insufficient  self-regulation was be brought to an end.”

Collins stated that if Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg “doesn’t believe he is accountable to the UK Parliament, he is to the billions of Facebook users across the world”.

Zuckerberg “still has questions to answer yet he’s continued to duck them, refusing to respond to our invitations directly or sending representatives who don’t have the right information”.

“[He] continually fails to show the levels of leadership and personal responsibility that should be expected from someone who sits at the top of one of the world’s biggest companies,” Collins added.

  Collins said “a radical shift in the balance of power between the platforms and the people” is needed, adding: “The age of inadequate self-regulation must come to an end.”

He said the inquiry also found that electoral regulations in the UK are “hopelessly out of date for the internet age” and need to be reformed.

Over 87 million people were affected by the privacy breach who were mostly in the US which was the largest in Facebooks history. This cause the collapse of Cambridge Analytica administration.

The firm was popular for its work during Donald Trumps US presidential election campaign. It used the data it derived from Facebook to design software’s that influenced votes.

Alexander Nix the firm’s CEO was suspended after he was caught on camera touting the use of bribery and set-up to sway election

Facebook’s co-founder and chief executive Mark Zuckerberg was accused of Contempt of legislature for his refusal to provide evidence and sending younger employees to represent him and answer questions which they had no answer to.

The British government was sought to investigate “Foreign influence, misinformation, income, voter manipulation and breaking data protection guidelines” in the Scottish independence which held in 2014, the 2016 EU referendum and the 2017 general election.

Which made the committee come to an agreement that tech company’s self-regulation 

 must be abolished.

Tom Watson, the party’s deputy leader stated that “We need new independent regulation with tough powers and sanctions regime to curb the worst excesses of surveillance capitalism and the forces trying to use technology to subvert our democracy”.

Concern began to grow in 2017 about Facebook and its influence in regard to fake information and the speed at which this information gets to people so fast within few minutes.

The committee contended that if Facebook had accepted the agreement made with the US regulators in 2011 whereby the access to consumer data should be limited, the scandal would not have occurred.

The report also stated that Facebook chooses to make profit rather than protecting its user’s data which should be their top priority, rather they cover up data leakage

The report stated that Facebook prioritizes shareholders profits over user privacy rights. Facebook. 

Mark Zuckerberg was greatly criticised by the committee because of his claim that Facebook had never sold the data of its user before which was dismissed by the committee sating that this was untrue.

The Committee stated that “Mark Zuckerberg continually fails to show the levels of leadership and personal responsibility that should be expected from someone who sits at the top of the world’s biggest companies”.

The guardian stated that Facebook should not be allowed to be have like digital gangsters especially in the online world, whereby they see themselves ahead and beyond the law.

 Facebook said in a specifically measured response that “It was pleased to have a significant contribution, we are open to meaningful regulation and supports the committee’s recommendation for electoral law reform, said Palant Karim- Facebooks UK public policy manager.

Changes are being made now as every ad of Facebook must be authorized,

Whoever that is paying for the ad must be clearly stated, and the information concerning the advert is stored in an archive for 7 years.

Palant revealed that Facebook now supports confidentiality statute and believes that they have made improvement compared to the previous year. 

He stated that face book has greatly increased the team that works on abusive content to 30,000 people, machine learning and artificial intelligence was greatly financed on to resolve the problem.

Changes were also made to the group and event pages. They stated that “Currently apps need the permission of a group admin or member to access group content for closed groups and the permission of an admin for secret groups”

It is believed that this will help admins do things easily post and respond to content on their groups.

All third parties making use of the group API will require an approval from Facebook and an admin to make sure that they grant the group.

In regards to events, the statement notes that “ Until today, people could grant an app permission to get information  about events they host or attend , including private events

This change made it easier to add Facebook events to calendar, ticketing or other apps.

It’s of great importance that social. Media accounts use their access to people’s private information properly as because they have information about other people’s attendance and their posts on event wall.

The DCMS article demanded that sites like Facebook should be regulated and should not be left without control, it further argued that social media companies should not hide under the shadow of just being a platform, and even as a platform they have the responsibility of regulating the content placed on their sites.

 The report called for the following:

  1. A mandatory code of ethics guarding tech companies supervised by an independent regulator.
  2. Authority given to regulator to act on any tech company that breaches code.
  3. The government should reform present electoral communication statues involving elections in the UK
  4. Social media companies are expected to take down known sources of harmful content including proven sources of disinformation.

The regulation recommended a mandatory code of ethics and a sovereign regulator endowed to bring authorised proceedings against social media enterprises and force them to hand over used data.

 A good example is Germany, which passed a law in January 2018, which enforced that tech companies remove hate speech within the given period of 24 hours or pay the sum of €20 million fine.

With such law put in place Tech companies would go above and beyond to ensure that hate speech is removed from their applications/ platforms.

HOW TO SHOOT A VIDEO SEQUENCE

This video was shot at Tesco, Clare hall shopping centre Malahide Road. The concept of this video is to capture a friend of mine doing his grocery shopping for the week and using various shots to tell a story. This video was shot with an iPhone 11 with the filmic pro App and edited with Kinemaster and is one minute long.

      This video contains Wide angle shot, close up shot, long shot, medium shot and B-roll. Before I started recording, I adjusted my Focus and lighting to suit the environment till it was stable for shooting. I shot this video in sessions, according to scenes and not at once, then merged them accordingly to flow and tell a story. 

       This video started with a medium shot of his legs on the escalator, then a full shot of him facing the direction of the camera. A wide shot was taken of him walking towards Tesco, a close-up shot was taken of his legs as he walked through various shopping racks. This shot was employed to give details.

 I took this shot bending down and placing my phone horizontally on the ground for support then moving it slightly as he walked past me.

       A wide shot was taken of the entire environment which he was in to show which section of the mall he was in.  I placed my phone inside the basket ensuring the cameras were facing the celling, to capture a pack of chips fall into the basket. I also employed the same technique as he placed all the food items, he purchased into his shopping bag. 

       I felt this was a creative way to tell my story. Each scene was shot independently and later merged to form a sequence and to tell a story.

TOP 5 MAKEUP BRANDS YOU SHOULD BE USING

  1. Benefits

Perfect for natural looking brows.It comes with a brow pencil and spoolie.

2. Too faced

This concealer is perfect for under eye concealing and gives good coverage.

3. Fenty beauty

Fenty beauty lip glosses are the bomb! If you are looking for a gloss to invest in, I recommend

It comes in beautiful shades that makes your lip pop!

4. Estēe Lauder

This foundation is the real deal. It is worth your cents!

When buying your foundation you should always ensure that you go with a friend that would help see if its your shade.

Just a tip, I learnt this the hard way.

Your friends can tell what looks ashy and what suits you, go with a friend who has a bit of an interest in makeup.

5. Urban-decay setting spray

This spray is the holy grail. Y’all, its heaven!

This is not a sponsored post so be rest assured I’m being completely honest with you.

4 fashion bloggers with impeccable style

Onyii is known for her fearless style, you can’t seem to get enough of her, she is unpredictable. Did you see this coming? because I didn’t and I follow her. Every day, new drip.

I have been following Onyii for years and I have never gotten bored of her style, she keeps evolving and I look forward to her post.

“…Make it fashion”

She is unafraid to play with colors, who mixes brown and nude together in such a classy way?

she stands out in her style, color combination and she wears the cloth like she owns it.

Temi’s style is very subtle but yet powerful. I would describe semi as a minimalist with style.

You know what they say about subtle style, it screams confidence!

The CEO of Kai collective, she is very good at putting outfits of different fabrics. sHE IS THE QUEEN OF MULTISTYLING!

The difficulty faced by media in reporting reality

The media is an institution in the society which is placed with public service responsibility and accountability. Hence, the media serves the people and the people in turn are highly dependent on the media.

it’s the voice of the people. The people look up to the media for the truth and information in politics, health, social and economic activities.

Emile Durkheim, a founder of sociology (1858-1917) mentioned that we rely on the mass media to tell  us  what is  in the society and what’s important, since there is no central authority telling us what to think, the media serves as the watch dog  of the society and is therefore accountable to the people.

The people always demand truth from the media, the news we see and hear is something we do not directly experience but it’s something we inculcate in our day to day life. The people want to be and need to be aware of important activities, laws made and events that affects their lives. The media owe it to the people to publicize the good, bad and ugly that occurs in the society, the media checks and balances the activities of our leaders and because of this, it wields so much power that can make and break.  

Despite the power wielded by the media it also encounters difficulties when reporting reality. This was perfectly reflected in these two movies I watched, two media theories were used in this movies which made reporting reality difficult.

  1. Fair game 
  2. The Insider
  1. Fair Game

            Valerie plume works for the CIA and is married to Joseph Wilson, both couples are career driven, comfortable and somewhat influential because of the kind of jobs they do.

The movie showed us what American politics really is. George W. Bush was president at the time when Valerie was given an assignment of investigating Saddam Hussein’s Nuclear and Biological weapons programme in 2002. Valerie realizes that Iraq was not developing weapons of mass destruction., she made this known in the office but was overridden by I. Lewis Libby (men in the vice president’s office).

Valerie see’s what is trying to happen and acts accordingly because of her confidentiality. The full movie began when joe Wilson, Valerie’s husband sent to Niger by the CIA (14:24-14:44) to find out if large quantities of yellow cake Uranium was purchased by Saddam Hussein. He finds nothing (19:21-20:00).

    When President George Bush (48:30) in’ the state of the nation’ addresses the nation that Iraq is preparing weapons for mass destruction with n his findings cake Uranium from Africa. Joe tries to let the people know that its untrue based on his findings in (19:21 -20:00)

He does this by publishing his findings on New York times in an OP-ED article. (57:40).  Due to Joe Wilson’s action Valerie’s cover was blown. Joe decides to campaign to expose the people involved but then the CIA denies working with Joe in (1:14:37) this made it look like his information was false.

In 54:40 we can see that the president George Bush was hiding the truth, there was no Uranium 

(yellow cake) transported to Iraq from Niger for weapons of mass destruction. He spoke to Pete about it in (54:56- 56:22) and Pete said do nothing but consider his family.

Joe Wilson is relentless and very persistent, in 957:21-58:39) he released his statement, this brought a lot of controversy. To protect themselves in the American government, the CIA denied working with Joe Wilson but that they worked with Valerie his wife (1:00:32 -1:00:50) they made it seem like she divulged top government secret to her husband Joe Wilson. Joe Wilson was denied by the CIA and made look like a liar.

We can see how difficult it can be fighting the government, in (1:17:00 – 1:17: 08) joe and Valerie have a heated argument about how it’s impossible it is to fight the white house because they will always win. In (1:14: 47- 1:14:51) her colleague wishes her husband good luck fighting against the white house alone because its mission impossible.

Agenda setting theory 

Agenda setting theory was used by the government and the media in this movie. The government used the media “ New York times” to shape the mind and thinking of the members of the society, they used the media to influence and sway public opinion. The American government did this by; declaring publicly on New York Times that they never worked with joe Wilson, rather Valerie his wife divulged confidential information to joe Wilson her husband in (1:00:25- 1:00:48) 

The American government also planted the thought in the mind of the people through the media that Iraq  had possession of Uranium (yellow cake)  for mass destruction (38:06- 38:25) despite the fact that Joe Wilson stated that there was no Yellow cake in Iraq for mass destruction in (57:40). The media believed the Government and the media over Joe Wilson.

I mean, who  is one man to fight the white house? That was the situation in this case. Rogers (1998) explained that Agenda setting theory is used to Influence the audience by instilling what they should think instead of what they think. Agenda setting impact on the audiences is not on Peoples attitude but on their cognition. When agenda setting is used it changes the cognition of the audience on a particular issue. Agenda setting also creates public awareness and importance on certain issues to influences viewers which brings a hierarchy of news prevalence.

In order words, two things are key here;                                                                                      

  1. The media sometimes does not report reality, sometimes news is filtered to make it suit them or the media owners.
  2. The media can narrow few issues to the public  and make it seem more relevant than others  by its constant appearance in news.

THE INSIDER

Jeffery Wigand a top scientist in Brown and Williamson tobacco industry was suddenly dismissed from the tobacco industry for no good reason, they said he had poor communication skills. He got paid a lot (40:59)This dismissal affected him as he had children and a wife to cater to, his elder daughter has acute asthma(09:12) and he was left without medical coverage.

Lowell Bergman a journalist with CBS news aware of his dismissal sees him as the ultimate insider to reveal the secrets of Brown and Williamson Tobacco company. Jeffery Wigand has a confidentiality agreement with the tobacco company in (43:28-43:44) initially, refuses the interview but later on, due to anger, bitterness and frustration he decided to grant the interview for public good he breaks his confidentiality.

In (57:20 -57:40) he discusses going public with Bergman. In (1:09:35 -1:10:05) he went tapping in New York. In (1:22:24 – 1:22:53)he suffered assaults financially, physically, for reporting reality. In (1:29:25 -1:30:58) he goes to court to testify against Brown and Williamson  tobacco company. In (1:38:17) CBS begins to have a cold feet in airing the 60 minutes interview with Jeffery Wigand because the company he testified against are very powerful could sue CBS which became their fear in (1:39:02- 1:39:29) .

CBS refuses to broadcast Wigand’s testimony against Brown and Williamson company because they are at a greater risk of losing their company. Berg (1:41:40-1:41:55).  Bergman feels bad because he convinced Wigand that his truth would be told and he will be safe. In (1:42:40-1:43:10) he confronts CBS executives of being unprofessional and letting him down because of the effort he has put into the 60 minutes show.

In (1:49:41) Jeffery’s  past was dug (shoplifting, failing to pay child support) in order to discredit him and make his testimony seem like its untrue. Bergman fought till the end, and ensured that the truth was broadcasted in (02:21:53- 02: 23:51) despite his forceful vacation. The tobacco industry settled the law suit filled against them  by Mississippi and 49 other states  for 246 billion dollars. In (02:25:16), Bergman quit because of the difficulty he faced with CBS in reporting the truth and cannot guarantee security for his next source. 

GATE KEPPING THEORY

         In this movie, ‘The insider’ CBS news agency made use of gatekeeping, they tried to prevent the Interview with Jeffery Wigand to protect their company from being sued by Brown and Williamson Tobacco Company, but they also needed to air the 60 minutes interview for the public good and because of this they were in a dilemma.

Where they performing they public responsibility by preventing the interview from being broadcasted? A gate keeper is as the name describes, he/she decides what type of information should be supplied to group of people or individuals.

The gate keeper makes decisions .A gatekeeper has its influence in the media on what information should get to the public. Through this filtering process the unwanted and controversial information  are retracted by the gatekeeper, this controls inflow of information to the society. In media the editor plays the gatekeeper, he decides the news item that will be broadcasted to the public each and every day, he/she sometimes rejects news items because of media policies. he makes ethical decisions daily , through this ethics and policies he makes his decision  on what should be aired.

REFERENCES

Dearing, J. W.(1996). Agenda-setting. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE.

Doug. L (2010) Fair game. USA.

Mc Combs, M.(2013). Setting the Agenda. John Wiley & Sons.

Michael. M (1999). The insider. Beverly Hills. USA

Roger, E .M. (1986). Communication technology. New York :Simon and Schuster.

Taylor, P.A. (2008). Critical theories of mass media. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: Mc Graw-Hill Education (UK)

3 DIFFERENT WAYS MESH CAN ADD FLAVOUR TO YOUR DRESS

Mesh is worn on top of lingerie, we can see how this adds flavour to the outfit.

Pinterest

Mesh is added to the bottom of the pants to give details and bring the denim pants to life.

We can see how the mesh made the denim jacket look more luxurious and unique .

This can be done easily , its a DIY TECHNIQUE which can be achieved at home.

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